MAPPING GIRLS’ VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
As an urban and public historian, I aim to help integrate the histories of girls and women into the historical landscape and to highlight how gender, in conjunction with race and class, has shaped our built environment. My digital project in progress, “Mapping Girls’ Vocational Education in Chicago, 1879-1930,” uncovers an educational landscape that no longer exists in Chicago dedicated to preparing girls for work in the home, factory, and office. This interactive map plots the diverse institutions where girls under 18 received vocational education in Chicagoland, including Catholic industrial schools for homeless girls, state reformatories for girls deemed “delinquent” and “feeble-minded” by county courts, and neighborhood public schools. In doing so, this project demonstrates that competing efforts to educate girls for work had a profound impact on Chicago’s urban landscape between 1879 and 1930. When completed, I hope this project will be a useful research tool for other historians and a potential teaching aid for Chicago students.
PRESERVING CHICAGO’S TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOLS
In Spring 2017, I successfully nominated the former Lucy Flower Technical High School for Girls to the National Register of Historic Places. (You can access my full nomination on nps.gov here). I plan to nominate Chicago’s five remaining historic technical high schools to the National Register of Historic Places as a Multiple Property Listing.
Between 1908 and 1919, Chicago’s Board of Education constructed six “technical high schools” that instructed students in specific trades for the industrial workforce. Technical coursework for boys included foundry, electric work, engineering, and auto shop. At the Lucy Flower Technical High School (est. 1911), girls were prepared for low-paid positions as seamstresses, beauticians, and domestic servants. Above all, girls’ technical education centered on training for motherhood through childcare, cooking, and home management classes.
Why preserve Chicago’s historic technical high schools?
Chicago’s technical high schools are an important chapter in the history of American public education. These schools was founded during a national “vocational education movement,” in which progressive educators redirected schoolwork towards practical training for industrial jobs in their attempt to make schools more relevant to the lives of immigrant and working-class students. While earlier high schools were elite institutions for the middle class and college bound, technical high schools were filled with the children of Polish, German, Italian, and Russian Jewish immigrants and African American migrants from the rural south. Unfortunately, technical high schools focused on preparing a diverse student body for narrow industrial careers and reinforced existing inequalities of race, class, and gender in Chicago’s labor force. These schools gendered public education in new and profound ways by teaching male and female students separately for their roles as self-sufficient breadwinners and dependent homemakers in classrooms designed to resemble factories and kitchens. In sum, technical high schools altered the form and function of public education in Chicago.
Preservationists often lament that the history of working people, women, African Americans, and immigrants are erased in the built environment because structures associated with marginalized groups are not often considered “architecturally significant.” But public high schools are architecturally significant and are often the most monumental buildings in city neighborhoods. Preserving the city’s technical high schools helps ensure that diverse social histories are remembered in the historic landscape.
Information on my past public history work can be found on my CV.